Tag Archives: doctor patient relationship

Small changes big impact in healthcare

According to the Royal College of General Practitioners, UK:

The consultation is at the heart of general practice… As a general practitioner, if you lack a clear understanding of what the consultation is, and how the successful consultation is achieved, you will fail your patients. RCGP

The impact of the consultation varies because of the different perspectives between doctors and their patients:

…. in the consultation the patient is most commonly construed as a purely “biomedical” entity—that is, a person with disconnected bodily symptoms, wanting a label for what is wrong and a prescription to put it right. Even under this guise the patient still sometimes fails to report their full biomedical agenda. Not all symptoms were reported and not all desires for a prescription were voiced. Barry et al BMJ

Much of what transpires in the consult is a ritual. Over the course of a professional lifetime most doctors will greet the patient in the same way, say the same sort of thing, prescribe similar drugs and order the same sorts of tests.  This occurs for a variety of reasons perhaps because a doctor learns to present herself and behave in a specific way but also because the doctor’s training and experience has a significant impact on their clinical practice. There is ample evidence that how doctors interact with their patients is crucial to the outcome of the consultation and ultimately to outcomes in healthcare:

An increasing body of work over the last 20 years has demonstrated the relationship between doctors’ non-verbal communication (in the form of eye-contact, head nods and gestures, position and tone of voice) with the following outcomes: patient satisfaction, patient understanding, physician detection of emotional distress, and physician malpractice claim history. Although more work needs to be done, there is now significant evidence that doctors need to pay considerable attention to their own non-verbal behavior. Silverman BJGP 2010

With this in mind, if you are a doctor you may want to consider seven components of your interaction with patients that warrant occasional re-evaluation:

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What is the role of doctors in health promotion?

Our health is a cause for concern.

  • Over 1 in 5 Australians aged 18+ (22%) reported having Cardiovascular disease in 2011.
  • In 2009, the risk of being diagnosed with cancer before their 85th birthday was 1 in 2 for males and 1 in 3 for females.
  • 1 in 10 Australians aged 18+ (10%) had biomedical signs of chronic kidney disease in 2011–12, with the majority of these showing early signs of the disease.
  • 1 in 19 Australians (5.4%) had diabetes in 2011–12 (self–reported and measured data). This is includes approximately 1% of the population who did not self-report they had diabetes, which may indicate they were unaware they had the condition.
  • In 2007, 1 in 5 Australians aged 16–85 (20%) experienced a mental disorder in the previous 12 months.
    In 2013–14, 1 in 7 children aged 4–17 (14%) were assessed as having mental health disorders in the previous 12 months .
  • Over 1 in 4 Australians (28%) reported having arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions in 2011–12. The most prevalent conditions were back problems, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • 3 in 10 Australians aged 25–44 had untreated tooth decay in 2004–06.
  • 1 in 10 Australians (10%) reported having asthma in 2011–12. This rate is significantly lower than the rate of 11.6% in 2001.
    1 in 42 Australians (2.4%) reported having COPD in 2011–12. The development of COPD occurs over many years and mainly affects middle aged and older people.

It seems:

  • We eat too much. Almost 2 in 3 Australian adults (63%) are overweight or obese. 1 in 4 Australian children (25%) are overweight or obese.
  • We don’t take enough exercise. Based on estimates that between 60 and 70 per cent of the Australian population is sedentary, or has low levels of physical activity, it has been suggested that increasing participation in physical activity by 10 per cent would lead to opportunity cost savings of $258 million, with 37 per cent of savings arising in the health sector.
  • We drink too much alcohol and have been drinking more every year.
  • We don’t eat enough vegetables. In 2007–08, just over half of all children aged 5–7 years (57%) and a third of children aged 8–11 years (32%) ate the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables but only 5% of people aged 12–18 years and 6% of people 19 years and over did so.
  • Too few of us avail of cancer screening tests.
  • We drive too fast. Speeding is a factor in about one third of road fatalities in Australia. Additionally, more than 4100 people are injured in speed-related incidents each year.

Someone must be to blame for all this- if only they would do their job and tell us to eat and drink less, exercise more and slow down.  But wait there are industries profiting from our bad choices. We are influenced by more than our doctor. We have known this for decades. It is known as the Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model:

Hchokr

At the core of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model is the child’s biological and psychological makeup, based on individual and genetic developmental history. This makeup continues to be affected and modified by the child’s immediate physical and social environment (microsystem) as well as interactions among the systems within the environment (mesosystems). Other broader social, political and economic conditions (exosystem) influence the structure and availability of microsystems and the manner in which they affect the child. Finally, social, political, and economic conditions are themselves influenced by the general beliefs and attitudes (macrosystems) shared by members of the society. Wikipedia

Most Australians (13 Million) spend over 18 hours a day online. One in every five minutes (3.6 hours) a day is spent on social media. On the other hand time spent with general practitioners (GPs) is declining:

The proportion of GPs providing ‘Level C’ consultations (longer than 20 minutes) is substantial (96%) and constant; however, the number of long consultations provided per GP decreased by 21% between 2006 and 2010. The proportion of GPs providing Level D consultations (longer than 40 minutes) decreased from 72% in 2006 to 62% in 2009, while the number of Level D consultations provided per GP decreased by 26%. AHHA

Secondly the number of problems presented to doctors in increasing. In one survey of the 8707 patients sampled from 290 GPs, approximately half (47.4%, 95% CI: 45.2–49.6) had two or more chronic conditions.

Junk food is cheap and readily available. It is advertised to children. Fresh fruit and vegetables are less available, more expensive and of poorer quality in rural and remote Australia. These areas are also among our most economically disadvantaged and residents generally have less disposable income to spend on expensive, healthier food options. According to one report a multinational fast food company paid $500 million in taxes to the Australian government and might be due to pay more.

A 2017 poll  found that most Australians (78 per cent) believe Australia has a drinking problem, 74 per cent believe our drinking habits will worsen over the next five to ten years, and a growing majority (81 per cent) think more should be done to reduce alcohol harm. A price increase of 10%  on alcohol has been shown to reduce consumption by an average of 5%. Similarly for every 10% increase in price, consumption of tobacco reduces by about 4%. Finally a significant proportion of people are unhappy at work and this has been associated with snacking and weight gain.

So it seems that we are choices are triggered by far more than a doctor informing us that we are making bad choices. Doctors can make a huge difference to the individual who seeks advice in a teachable moment and can be triggered to make better choices. This requires more time with the patient and a greater focus on the needs of that individual patient rather than the distraction of a public health agenda.  At a public health level doctors’ impact is miniscule because of the much more powerful and ubiquitous drivers of poor choices that are fueled by those who profit from our dubious behaviour. A summary:

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Why our jobs are making us fat

We spend most of our time at work.

  • Expressed as terms of a percentage of your life, this 39.2 hours a week spent working is equivalent to:
  • 14% of your total times over the course of a 76 year period (based on the average projected life expectancy of 76 for people born in the year 2000 according to the ONS’s National Life Tables for the United Kingdom.)
  • 23.3% of your total time during the course of a 50 year working-life period
  • 21% of your total waking hours over a 76 year lifespan, assuming 8 hours of sleep a night.
  • 35% of your total waking hours over a 50 year working-life period assuming 8 hours of sleep a night
  • 50% of your total waking hours during any given working day. ReviseSociology

This is a significant chunk of our lives. Yet we note that many people are disengaged at work.

Gallup

This is a problem because being disengaged at work is also associated with other behaviours that are problematic. Faragher and colleagues reported in the BMJ:

A systematic review and meta-analysis of 485 studies with a combined sample size of 267 995 individuals was conducted, evaluating the research evidence linking self-report measures of job satisfaction to measures of physical and mental wellbeing. The overall correlation combined across all health measures was r = 0.312 (0.370 after Schmidt-Hunter adjustment). Job satisfaction was most strongly associated with mental/psychological problems; strongest relationships were found for burnout (corrected r = 0.478), self-esteem(r = 0.429), depression (r = 0.428), and anxiety(r = 0.420). The correlation with subjective physical illness was more modest (r = 0.287).

There is increasing evidence for an association between job dissatisfaction and the most significant health challenge we face in the next decade- namely obesity. A survey of nurses in Ohio concluded that:

..disordered eating differed significantly based on perceived job stress and perceived body satisfaction. Nurses with high levels of perceived job stress and low levels of body satisfaction had higher disordered eating involvement. King et al

A more recent paper in BMC obesity reported that obesity rates varied across industries and between races employed in different industries:

Obesity trends varied substantially overall as well as within and between race-gender groups across employment industries. These findings demonstrate the need for further investigation of racial and sociocultural disparities in the work-obesity relationship to employ strategies designed to address these disparities while improving health among all US workers. Jackson et al

Lui and colleagues suggest a possible explanation:

Study 1 sampled 125 participants from 5 Chinese information technology companies and showed that when participants experienced higher levels of job demands in the morning, they consumed more types of unhealthy food and fewer types of healthy food in the evening. In addition, sleep quality from the previous night buffered the effect of morning job demands on evening unhealthy food consumption. Study 2 used data from 110 customer service employees from a Chinese telecommunications company and further demonstrated a positive association between morning customer mistreatment and evening overeating behaviors, as well as the buffering effect of sleep quality. J Appl Psychol

Possibly a very useful question we can ask people seeking medical advice with weight management: ‘ What do you do for a living and how do you feel about it?’. It may be that they are eating their feelings. Review what people are eating at their desk or during breaks. Snacks have become the fourth meal of the day — accounting for 580 extra calories per day, most of which come from beverages — and may be a primary contributor to our expanding waistlines. Here’s why employees become disengaged at work. A summary:

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You are one of us doctor you’ll understand

The door opened a crack and I could just make out a face in the half light.

The doctor I spoke to was Irish, who are you?

I assured the patient that I was indeed the person they spoke with when they requested a home visit. Reluctantly, they let me in. It must have been evident from my reply that in contrast to my brown face I had an Irish accent. Roll forwards a few years and I was in a consulting room in England. The healthy middle eastern man spoke with me earnestly.

You are one of us. You will understand. It is our culture. My son is disabled. I am a father and I need to look after him as our family requires. The social security people say I must work. Please just sign me off for a few months to stop them harassing me.

A few years later I stood in the dinning room of a large conference centre in Sydney scanning the room looking for a friend. One of the delegates queuing for breakfast tapped me on the shoulder:

Excuse me sir, there aren’t enough spoons at the table.

I sorted the matter of the spoons as I hope a gentleman and not just a waiter would. The consultation consists of the stage (consulting room), the props ( the equipment), the script and the action and of course the actors (doctor and patient). We are occasionally reminded that the actor’s appearance has a significant impact on how they are perceived by the other in the ritual that is the consultation. If we come to this unprepared then we may be wrong footed even in the opening exchanges. My experience has taught me what it is like to have people make assumptions about you even before you open your mouth. I believe that has made me a better doctor and personally aware of the issues.

Picture by elysianfields

A cough is not minor in any sense

 

 Acute cough, which often follows an upper respiratory tract infection, may be initially disruptive but is usually self‐limiting and rarely needs significant medical intervention. Thorax

In adults or children with acute cough, the evidence does not support the effectiveness of over the counter preparations. Cochrane Review

On the other hand:

Oral syrups segment is expected to expand at 2.9% CAGR (Compound annual growth rate) over the estimated period and be valued more than US$ 10 Bn by the end of 2026. The segment is expected to create absolute $ opportunity of a little more than US$ 300 Mn in 2017 over 2016. The segment is the most acceptable dosage form for cough, cold, and sore throat medicines due to ease of administration and pleasant taste. The oral syrups segment dominated the global cold, cough and sore throat remedies market in terms of revenue in 2016 and the trend is projected to continue throughout the forecast period. Oral syrups segment is the most attractive segment, with attractiveness index of 1.5 over the forecast period. FMI

Cough, cough, cough. Every hour on the hour. There appears to be no end to it this season. No symptom is driving more people to seek treatment than the misery of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The impact of the URTIs season on the population is massive as has been demonstrated in data from the US:

More than half (52%) of Americans reported that their cold impacted their daily life a fair amount to a lot. Productivity decreased by a mean 26.4%, and 44.5% of respondents reported work/school absenteeism (usually one to two days) during a cold. Overall, 93% of survey participants reported difficulty sleeping. Among all respondents, 57% reported cough or nasal congestion as the symptoms making sleep difficult. Drug Store News

One issue that appears to be bound up with the epidemic of URTIs is rates of prescribing of antibiotics. Here the available data are encouraging:

Professor Bell suggests that 20–25% of acute URTIs are likely to need antibiotics…..We have shown that over the last 13 years GPs in Australia have decreased their level of prescribing of antibiotics for acute URTI and to a lesser degree, for ‘other RTIs’. Britt et al

However there is an opportunity here over and above the treatment of an annoying self-limiting infection. Most people who seek help want more than anything else to feel better. By 2026 they will spend $10Bn in the attempt. The conversations in consulting rooms and pharmacies around the country focus on symptoms that will improve, eventually. Antibiotics won’t help. But, in the end what people want is to feel better not a lecture on virology. There is an opportunity for a ‘set play’.

Yes, you have a nasty infection and I see that it is making you miserable. Here’s what you can do to help your self.

There is an opportunity to forge a relationship with the patient. The ritual of the consultation complete with examination has the potential to create enormous deposit of social capital. Something that might be critical when the patient presents later in life with life-limiting pathology. There is the chance to understand a lot more about the patient for whom a cold is the final straw. But what’s the context? Be curious, very curious that’s why it’s called the art of medicine.

Picture by Rebecca Brown

Healthcare will do better when Joe accepts that he is in trouble

There is nothing especially remarkable about Joe. At 49 he works as an administrator for a company in the city. He walks to work from the station having taken a train from the suburbs. He weighs 78Kgs and is 170cm tall (BMI 27). To stay that way he needs to consume no more than 1900 calories per day. He has a bowl of cereal for breakfast, a  panini sandwich for lunch and a home cooked dinner with a glass of wine. That’s about 1900 calories. Joe isn’t inspired at work but he earns a reasonable living. They bought a new car last year and Joe is tied to a hefty car loan, his wife Bridgette gave up her job as a nurse when they had their children ten years ago. They now have three children under 10. The youngest has asthma but he seems so much better since he was put on a steroid inhaler. Joe and Bridgette have had their ups and downs. They worry about money.  Mostly they work hard and are doing their best to raise their boys. At the weekend Joe goes to a football match but since his mid-twenties doesn’t play any sport. With the kids doing sport and music lessons there isn’t time. Joe has never smoked a cigarette.

During the week Joe goes for coffee with his colleagues at 10.30 every morning. He also enjoys a small muffin. Then he has a banana at 2 pm and a couple of small biscuits while he is watching television in the evening. He doesn’t think too much about it. He is consuming 500 calories more than he needs per day and in 6 months when Joe is 50 his BMI will put him over the line into obesity.

Joe rarely sees his doctor. In winter he occasionally gets a chesty cough and makes an emergency appointment with any doctor who is available because Bridgette says he might need an antibiotic. Once or twice since his thirties, a doctor checked his blood pressure and it is always normal. He had a medical as part of his mortgage application when he was 35 and everything was ‘normal’. Most of Joe’s friends are heavier than Joe and he still thinks of himself as ‘healthy’.  After all, he walks to work, has a healthy banana as a snack in the afternoon and he makes sure his evening meal is a healthy one.

Joe doesn’t see any problem. There is really time to talk to the doctor about why he likes that large cup of coffee and the muffin or to say that he is stuck in a dead-end job with a mortgage to pay and children to raise. Joe doesn’t admit that he is bored. The coffee break is the highlight of an otherwise long day of drudgery.  Joe’s trousers are getting a little bit tighter. Bridgette has noticed but his friends are all so much bigger and Joe doesn’t think she’s worried about it. She herself has gone up three dress sizes since the children were born so she doesn’t tease him too much. Besides, he just got a bigger size recently and he still thinks he looks good.

Joe is at risk of becoming a statistic in the epidemic of Globesity. All that stands in the way is the ingenuity and interest of those who care to find a way to help Joe turn things around.

Picture by Khuroshvili Ilya

She’s furious but what does your reaction say about you?

Where there is anger there is fear. Health issues are frightening. They pose a real and sometimes imminent threat to our basic needs. Sometimes even a threat to life itself.

There is a strong relationship between anger and fear. Anger is the fight part of the age-old fight-or-flight response to threat. Most animals respond to threat by either fighting or fleeing. But, we don’t always have the option to fight what threatens us. Instead, we have anger. Psychology 

Anger is an emotion that doctors encounter often. Unfortunately they may also find themselves getting annoyed at that angry patient who has been kept waiting, that angry mother who thinks her child’s test results should be available today, that angry young man who says he will be fired unless he gets a backdated certificate, that angry Boomer who is convinced her cancer can be cured if only this doctor arranges an appointment for coffee enemas.

Doctors can choose how to respond. How to interpret that emotion. Doctors too can be angry. Angry about having to work in a healthcare system where one sector doesn’t coordinate with another, a payment schedule that doesn’t reward for time spent waiting on the phone, a system where people come with undifferentiated problems and can’t give a clear history of their symptoms. They can choose whether or not to express this emotion during a heated conversation.

At the end of the day, doctors can go home- for the mother of the child with cystic fibrosis, the young man with the heartless employer, the old lady with bowel cancer there is no such escape. A response that may help is to acknowledge the anger but address the fear. It may even reduce the frequency with which people might see the doctor standing in the way of something they think will immediately reduce the threat. It may also help when doctors are angry that those who are the target of that anger confront the issues rather engage in recrimination.

Picture by Petras Gaglias 

Doctors need better tools to help people recognise danger

Doctors see it all the time. The fifty-year-old with a BMI of 28, the teenager who is developing a taste for cigarettes, the twenty-year-old who now binge drinks every weekend, the soon-to-be-mum who is ‘eating for two’. Small choices that may become habits and habits that lead to consequences. Where I work the average consultation is fifteen minutes. In that time we address whatever symptoms or problems have been tabled. The list may be long. Occasionally it’s possible to raise a topic that I’m worried about. The problem is the patient may not be worried about that issue.

Afterall doctor I don’t drink any more than my mates do or I don’t really eat that much.

What’s needed are tools that help frame the issue from the perspective of the patient, not the practitioner. Tools that help us address public health priorities that speak TO that person, not AT everyone. Before making any changes the person needs to agree that their choices might blight their hopes for the future. These are not inconsiderable challenges given the gloomy predictions for the future.

At the other end of the malnutrition scale, obesity is one of today’s most blatantly visible – yet most neglected – public health problems. Paradoxically coexisting with undernutrition, an escalating global epidemic of overweight and obesity – “globesity” – is taking over many parts of the world. If immediate action is not taken, millions will suffer from an array of serious health disorders. The World Health Organisation

Diabetes is likely to cement its place as the fastest growing epidemic in history. The Medical Journal of Australia

In addition, youthful drinking is associated with an increased likelihood of developing alcohol abuse or dependence later in life. Early intervention is essential to prevent the development of serious alcohol problems among youth between the ages of 12 and 20. NIH

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A small act that never goes unnoticed

Much can be said about the way we greet people. However nothing is more telling than the memory of the last time we were greeted when we were in need. Those who have travelled overseas know exactly what it’s like to be in an alien environment, where things are unfamiliar and a little threatening. Like pulling up at an immigration check point, passport in one hand and tired kids at your feet.

The one that sticks in mind was the experience at Italian passport control decades ago when we arrived in Rome with our then very young brood. The smartly dressed official eyed us all in turn from behind the tall counter, then made to count our children, smiled broadly at the parents, nodding as if in approval of the size of the family and waved us through. A charming start to the holiday. That was fifteen years ago and we still  talk about it.

Last week in Bali the receptionists stood up every time a guest passed the desk, bowed with hands clasped to heart smiling brightly. It set the tone for the whole day.

My favourite greeting is Malay.

“The traditional Malay handshake, known as ‘salam’, involves both parties extending their arms and clasping each other’s hand in a brief but firm grip,” advised Lew Wai Gin, the guest liaison manager at Tanjong Jara Resort. “The man can then offer either one or both hands, grasp his friend’s hands, and then bring a hand back to his chest, which means: ‘I greet you from my heart’.” Grantourismo

Having experienced the impact it has when I travel for work in that country it persuaded me that how we greet each other matters more than we might realise. It’s a small choice which costs nothing. In medicine the provider has the opportunity to set the tone for what follows which can be to agree or disagree, to give good or bad news. Whatever follows people remember the way they were made to feel when they were most vulnerable. They might even write about it decades later!

Picture by Ben Smith

Are we are obstructing the doctor with gadgets?

Despite billions of dollars of investment in technology the results in healthcare are disappointing.

Information Technology (IT) surrounds us every day. IT products and services from smart phones and search engines to online banking and stock trading have been transformative. However, IT has made only modest and less than disruptive inroads into healthcare. Nicolas Terry (2013)

This was predicted in a prophetic article by Gregory Hackett (1990) when he concluded that:

The primary reason is that technology alone does not determine corporate performance and profitability. Employee skills and capabilities play a large role, as do the structures of day-to-day operations and the company’s policies and procedures. In addition the organisation must be flexible enough to respond to an increasingly dynamic environment. And products must meet customer requirements. Investment in Technology-The Service Sector Sinkhole? SMR Forum Service

However, there are still those who seem enamoured of machines:

Rapid growth of robotic industry is leading to novel applications in medical field. Evolution of new terminologies like tele-presence, tele-medicine, tele-consultation, tele-diagnosis, telerounding, tele-health centers, tele-doctors, tele-nurses are overwhelming and required to be readdressed.  Iftikhar

That way leads to a nightmarish world in which we push vulnerable people onto an assembly line and healthcare looks like this but also includes the dehumanising impact of machines:

….. hospitalists care for sick inpatients and are charged with rapid throughput by their administrative overlords; nocturnists do this job as well — but at night; intensivists take over when work in a critical care unit is required; transitionalists step in when the patient is ready to be moved on to rehabilitation (physiatrists) or into a skilled nursing facility (SNFists). Almost at the end of the line are the post-acutists in their long-term care facilities and the palliativists — tasked with keeping the patient home and comfortable — while ending the costly cycle of transfers back and forth to the hospital. Finally, as the physician-aid-in-dying movement continues to gain support, there will be suicidalists adept at handling the paperwork, negotiating the legal shoals and mixing the necessary ingredients when the time comes. Jerald Winakur- The Washington Post

Technology now impinges on every interaction- for better and for worse:

There were the many quiet voices who urged circumspection as long ago as 1990:

Diagnosis is a complex process more involved than producing a nosological label for a set of patient descriptors. Efficient and ethical diagnostic evaluation requires a broad knowledge of people and of disease states. The state of the art in computer-based medical diagnosis does not support the optimistic claim that people can now be replaced by more reliable diagnostic programs. Miller

One could not argue against technology as a tool but the art of medicine requires that technology helps the doctor. People are not disordered machines and the promise of better health is not forthcoming as we throw money at machines hoping for greater access, efficiency, and safety. However, there is now mounting evidence that the patient is not responding and it’s time to pause for thought, again.

It’s not that complicated. Healthcare works when the doctor and her patient are on the same page. So to what extent does a gadget or gizmo allow that? Does it help them to:

  1. Work out what’s wrong together?
  2. Make it easier for them to work together?
  3. Make it easier for them to achieve a goal together?

If it becomes a substitute for the doctor it will disappoint. People respond best to human doctors. No ifs or buts. Medical school 101. Doctors also have choices in how they deploy and interact with technology. Turning to face the computer, ordering a test and recommending an app aren’t always the way to the best outcome.

Picture by Guian Bolisay