Tag Archives: communication

Effective communication speaks to something people already believe

131417495_81e95b261d_z A doctor who urges a patient to quit smoking ‘to reduce the risk of lung cancer’ may well hear the retort

My grandma smoked until she was 96 and she barely even caught a cold until the day she died in her sleep.

Obstetricians advise women to stop smoking ‘to avoid harming their baby’ may face the rebuttal

My sister is a chain smoker and she gave birth to 3.8kg baby!

General practitioners advise a parent about the dangers of passive smoking may be dismissed with

I never smoke in doors.

Increasing motivation in the hope of changing behaviour is a very hard to achieve. Everyday dozens of men and women will get behind the wheel of a car intoxicated despite dire warnings. Hundreds of informed pregnant women will continue to smoke cigarettes and intelligent teenagers will expose themselves to the sun until their skin peels.

The most effective call to action relates to something people already want. They offer something affordable and speak to something the person already believes. A seductive:

Why have cotton when you can have silk?

In reality not every life time cigarette smoker will develop lung cancer, in fact most won’t.  Not every woman who smokes will have a ‘small for dates’ baby. Not every sun burnt teenager faces the prospect of a malignant melanoma. Unfortunately when people want something, a sun tan, to ride home in their own car after party or to continue a bad habit they chose to believe the facts that support their view. The job of the innovator is to make the messages about less risky life style choices personalised, offer something that seems easily attained and resonate with what that person believes. Each person with whom we wish to communicate speaks a different language and has different ideas, concerns and expectations. We also do well to remember that the choice is theirs to make. We sincerely hope that they are not among the unfortunate few who might suffer the bad outcome that we seek for them to avoid. Just because some smokers don’t develop lung cancer it doesn’t mean that none do.

Picture by Kelly Sue DeConnick

In a call to action timing is everything

Nebulizer Baby

I recall with shame that I had failed to protect our little boy when he scalded his hand while I was running his bath. At that moment the advice to keep toddlers out of the bathroom while a hot tap is running was hardly necessary. Similarly the dentist who advised us that dried fruit can cause dental caries rammed home the message when he announced that our five year old needed fillings.

Health professionals frequently impart information as a call to action:

You are drinking too much. You need to stop smoking. You need to take more exercise. You need a holiday. You are damaging your hearing. You are putting yourself at risk of skin cancer. You need to take the test.

The problem is that the advice is rarely followed. A wonderful paper by McBride, Emmons and Lipkus cited 487 times offers a heuristic model for ‘Teachable Moments’. Events such as: clinic visits, notification of abnormal test results, pregnancy, hospitalization and disease diagnosis. In many cases the impact of a health promotion message delivered in this context is substantial, and far better than any other intervention.

  • Clinical visits for health promotion and acute illness

It is more likely that a parent will stop smoking if their child is attending a clinic for a condition that is exacerbated by passive smoking. Similarly dentists are much more likely to promote successful quit attempts when they advise smokers attending with dental problems.

  • Notification of abnormal test results

It is more likely that people with abnormal spirometry results will quit smoking if advised at the time of receiving their results.

  • Pregnancy

Studies have reported that among those smoked prior to pregnancy 39% quit after becoming pregnant, a rate 8 times that reported among smokers in the general population.

  • Hospitalisation and disease diagnosis

The 12-month follow-up quit rates among hospitalised smokers who received no formal intervention ranges from 15-78%. Reason for hospitalisation has been suggested as an important co-factor in cessation rates. Long-term abstinence rates are higher among cardiac patients and those receiving care for cancers.

The evidence from research is that pregnancy and hospitalisation have the greatest potential as a ‘Teachable Moment’. It seems that the triggering effect of a health promotion message is much more effective given the heightened emotional state and the increased perception of risk and benefit from the suggested action. In addition ‘individuals see greater personal relevance in events that threaten or increase their self-esteem, undermine or enhance feelings of personal control and endanger positive expectations of the future‘. In these circumstances people will invest greater emotional and cognitive effort in achieving the necessary outcome.  It’s not just the message that needs to be considered but the ‘Teachable Moment’ and how that message is to be imparted. The most effective health professionals know how to do this without making a bad situation worse.

Picture by Kristy Faith

See demand in context and respond creatively

9645066390_babd98c3f1_zHello Jill, Oh, I’m sorry I have no appointments to offer you today. the doctors are all fully booked. If your son has a fever try him with some paracetamol and call back on Friday when I might be able to squeeze him in with Dr. Jones. Ok, bye.

Many years ago I overheard this conversation in my reception. Our receptionist giving medical advice without any qualifications. The surgery was over booked. She was harassed, doctors were grumpy and the patients were being turned away without being assessed by anyone.

We noticed that there was a seasonal pattern to this demand for appointments. Most doctors were aware of this trend because there were specific weeks of the year when they avoided taking holidays. Our reception staff kept meticulous colour coded records of such ‘same day’ appointments. When we entered this data on a statistical database there could be no doubt of a seasonal pattern with definite peaks and troughs. What’s more, we could predict the demand for ‘same day urgent appointments’ with reasonable confidence. At this point, it may be important to stress that doctors in the UK are paid a ‘capitation fee’ for serving patients. That means they are paid an annual fee no matter how many times they see the patient.

Understanding that people have a fundamental desire to talk to the decision maker, we settled on the notion of putting the doctor in charge of making the appointment. Patients who requested a ‘same day’ appointment were offered a telephone consultation with a general practitioner initially. Not with a nurse, as happened in some practices, but with their doctor. We believed patients wanted to speak with a medical practitioner, not because the advice they received was necessarily better than that given by another member of the team, but because people in distress want a doctor. Whatever the reason it worked. Important policy makers noticed. Doctors could deal with most requests within a couple of minutes, offer a ‘same day’ slot or something else without the need for a face-to-face appointment. We calculated a 40% reduction in demand for such appointments. Patients loved it, reception staff loved it too (no more arguments about lack of appointments with irate patients) and doctors found themselves in control of their workload. What’s more, we could prove that this simple intervention worked from the impact on longitudinal seasonal trend.

By allowing patients to speak to their doctor when they felt they couldn’t wait our practice chose to treat this small minority of patients differently to those who were happy to make a routine appointment. We acknowledged that these patients had a need that warranted a creative solution. Perhaps you have a group of patients who would benefit from being treated differently too? What is the context in which they seek help? The tired mother with a fevered child does not have the same needs as the young professional who requires a convenient appointment to obtain a prescription for the contraceptive pill. Both might seek an urgent appointment.

Picture by Marjan Lazerveski