In a cohort of U.S. women, we found that sun exposures in both early life and adulthood were predictive of BCC and SCC risks, whereas melanoma risk was predominantly associated with sun exposure in early life. Wu et al
Furthermore according to the editor of Nature in July 2014
It is accepted that sunscreens protect against squamous cell carcinoma, and this work [research] suggests that they also protect against melanoma.
This message is not getting through to those who might be able to influence public opinion
To win the U.S. Open, tennis players must overcome fearsome opponents, grueling matches and searing heat. But for some, none of that causes quite as much angst as the prospect of rubbing on a gob of white lotion. Of all the accessories that players have at their disposal, sunscreen may be their least favorite. Some don’t wear it at all. Some apply it before daytime matches, if somewhat begrudgingly. But nobody seems to like it. Brian Costa and Jim Chairusmi
The ambient temperature in many parts of Australia early this year will be well over 30 degrees with a UV index of 11- in other words, extreme. Intelligent and well-informed young men and women may be found fully exposed to the midday sun and for hours on end. Many will not be wearing sunscreen, a hat or sunglasses. This can be observed on the beaches, on the tennis courts and on the cricket field.
The message to seek protection from harmful UV rays needs to be crafted in the context to which it is being targetted. It needs to take account of the ideas of young people who are resistant to messages that appear to impose limitations on what they can do:
Tennis players tend to sweat profusely, especially during day sessions at the U.S. Open, where high temperatures and humidity are typical. When the heat mixes with sunscreen, the sweat can form a gooey substance that gets into players’ eyes and onto their hands, affecting both their vision and their grip.
We need to understand and adapt to the perspective of those to whom the public health message needs to get through. There may be other ways to deliver the messages that are more potent. Watch these videos:
Therefore, within Foggs model, the motivation to seek protection from UV light could be targetted better. Ability to apply sunscreen or wear sunglasses also needs more attention. Technology may have more to offer with more user-friendly products. Equally making the equipment currently on the market more readily available when and where they are needed will also help. Finally, it may be worth considering a trigger for the behaviour. Something that gets motivated people with the ability to perform the action to then act on a regular basis. The recipe for such behaviour is typically the traffic light. Red means stop every time. The teenager who gets on the cricket field with sunglasses and sunscreen in his bag needs to be triggered to wear them without mum or dad’s nagging voice to remind him. The behaviour needs to be anchored to something familiar- e.g. stepping onto the sand or grass and the message delivered at a teachable moment. The trigger of television advert is not enough for behaviours that need to be repeated. There is still scope to develop an effective innovation by an enterprising researcher based on the principles of patient experience design. I hope it is you.
Picture by Colin J